Monthly Academic Journal of Social Sciences
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Journal Policy

1. Privacy Policy

This Privacy Notice explains how European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)®, published by UK Education Consultancy Services Ltd, (Company Number 10459935 Registered in England; City: Tadworth, Surrey; Country of Publication: United Kingdom) processes your personal data and your rights in relation to the personal data we hold. Our policy takes into account the Data Protection Act 1998 (the Act) and, with effect from 25 May 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

1.1 Your rights

Data protection legislation gives you a number of rights to protect you against an organisation mishandling your personal information.

1.2 How we collect your personal information

1.2.1  Information which you provide to us

This information is generally provided by you when you
1. Access our website
2. fill in forms on our website or our apps, for example to order products or services, to sign up to a mailing list, or to register to use our website, make an application for employment, add to comments section, complete surveys or testimonials and/or request any information from us.
3. communicate with us by post, telephone, fax, email, social media etc
The information you give may include biographical information (your name, title, date of birth, age and gender, academic institution, affiliation, job title, subject specialism), contact information (email address, mailing address, telephone number) and financial or credit card details.

1.2.2  Information we collect about you

a) When your visit our website to our apps
We collect details of your Internet Protocol (IP) address, location (including institution), browser type and version, and operating system; information you provide in your communications with us; details about how you use our website and apps including the content you accessed, any searches you conducted, your length of visit, login details, time and date of visit and what method you used to browse away from our website, products you have purchased and details of financial transactions; (for detailed information on the cookies we use and the purposes for which we use them please see our Cookie Policy). You can disable cookies through your web browser’s settings and still access our websites – although certain functionality may not be available to you in those circumstances.
b)  We may also collect and process certain personal information about you which you have not provided to us yourself.
On very limited occasions we may collect data that you have made available in the public domain, such as your contact details, research interests, courses that you teach and the institution that you are based at. When we do this, we carefully consider whether do so is in your interest and any impact on your rights, and we will inform you as soon as practically possible about our use of your data and your right to object to this and to unsubscribe from any communications from us.

1.2.3 Information from other sources

Any third-party sources from where your information could be made available to us. Currently,
(a) Data analysis partner who analyse your use of our websites and apps
(b) Our e-commerce partners for payment

1.3 How we use your information

We use information held about you in the following ways:
1.3.1 To deliver our products and services to you
We may use your personal information to carry out our obligations arising from any contracts entered into between you and us and to provide you with the information, products and services that you request from us (as is necessary for the performance of those contracts); notify you about changes to our service (as is necessary for the performance of a contract to which you are a party and/or as is necessary for our legitimate interests); allow you to access restricted areas of our websites, when you choose to do so (which may rely on your consent for the processing of your personal information which is necessary for giving you access to those restricted areas);To improve the effectiveness of our products, services and marketing communications – we may use your personal information (in each case as is necessary for our legitimate interests or exceptionally where you have given your consent) to:
1.3.2  For our use
a) administer our websites
b) improve our websites to ensure that content is presented in the most effective manner for you and for your computer or device;
c) keep our websites safe and secure;
d) measure or understand the effectiveness of advertising we deliver to you and others, and to deliver relevant advertising to you;
e) provide you with information about other goods and services we offer that are similar to those that you have already purchased or enquired about, provided that you have not told us that you do not wish to receive this information (as is necessary for our legitimate interests);
f) make suggestions and recommendations to you about goods or services that we believe may interest you, based on your previous transactions, behaviour, subject interests and other information that we may hold about you and your institution or organization. third party service providers such as shipping companies and our website and app platform providers who assist us in delivering our products to you;
g) our bank to whom payment details are provided in order to process a payment;
h) our data storage providers and those who provide our Customer Relationship Management (CRM) platforms

1.4  Your marketing preferences

If you would like to update your details, including details of how you prefer to be contacted for marketing purposes, you can do this by:
(a) Clicking on ‘Unsubscribe’ link on an email communication
(a) Setting your preferences in the ‘Preference’ link on an email communication

1.5  Sharing your information with third parties

We may transfer personal data of article authors, editor and board members and subscribers to our journals to our journal management software epress ( Read their Privacy Policy at

1.6  Transfer outside the European Economic Area (EEA)

In limited circumstances, disclose personal data to third parties, or allow personal data to be stored or handled, in countries outside the European Economic Area. In these circumstances, your personal data will only be transferred on one of the following bases:
where the transfer is subject to one or more of the “appropriate safeguards” for international transfers prescribed by applicable law (e.g. standard data protection clauses adopted by the European Commission under Article 46(2)(c) GDPR). If you wish to obtain a copy of the standard clauses we use,
please contact us
under an approved certification mechanism such as Privacy Shield (Article 42 GDPR)
a European Commission decision provides that the country or territory to which the transfer is made ensures an adequate level of protection (Article 45 GDPR)
there exists another situation where the transfer is permitted under applicable law (for example, where we have your explicit consent)

1.7  How long do we keep your information

We retain your personal information for as long as required to provide our products to you or is necessary for our legal purposes or our legitimate interests. Products provided by us for ten years after the product has been provided, unless our relationship with you continues for a longer period; information gained from the cookies we use on our website and apps for 30 days for marketing purposes until you inform us that you no longer wish to hear from us (for example, through clicking ‘unsubscribe’ on an email communication). If you express this preference we may retain your contact details on a suppression list so that you no longer receive communications from us.

1.8  Your rights in respect of your personal information

1.8.1  Under the Data protection Act you have the following rights
a) to obtain access to, and copies of, the personal information that we hold about you;
b) to require that we cease processing your personal information if the processing is causing you damage or distress; and
c) to require us not to send you marketing communications.
1.8.2  With effect from 25 May 2018 after GDPR, you have the following additional rights
a) To request that we erase your personal data;
b) To request that we restrict our data processing activities in relation to your personal data;

c) To receive from us the personal data we hold about you, which you have provided to us, in a reasonable format specified by you, including for the purpose of transmitting that personal data to another data controller; and
d) To require us to correct the personal data we hold about you if it is incorrect.
Please note that the above rights are not absolute, and requests may be refused where exceptions apply.

1.9 Contact us

If you have any comments, questions or concerns about anything you have read on this page or you are concerned how your personal information has been handled by European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)®, you can contact us at

1.10  Referral to the UK Information Commissioner

If you are an EU Citizen and are not satisfied with how we are processing your personal data, you can refer us to the Information Commissioner. You can find out more about your rights under data protection legislation from the Information Commissioner’s Office website available at:

1.11  Changes in our Privacy Policy

If we make changes to this policy we will detail them on this page.  If it is appropriate we may provide you with details by email; we suggest that you regularly visit this page to see any changes or updates to this policy.

2. Peer Review and Editorial Policy

All original research articles, short communications and mini or in-depth review articles received by European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)® are peer-reviewed. We value peer reviewer’s contribution and the time that reviewers devote to assessing the manuscripts. We consider peer-review as an essential part of the publication process and immensely appreciate the tremendous collective contribution that reviewers make to our journals.

2.1 Selection of reviewers

Reviewer selection is critical to the publication process. Reviewers are matched to the manuscript according to their area of expertise and experience. All manuscripts are sent to at least two or more independent reviewers selected by the editors. In case a peer reviewer is not immediately available, we ask authors to suggest reviewers but the editor’s decision is final on the choice of referees.

2.2 Peer-review process

2.2.1 Papers submitted are peer reviewed in a double-blind fashion (both author and referee names are concealed). Editors, authors and reviewers are required to keep all details of the editorial and peer review process on a manuscript as confidential. The entire peer review process is confidential and conducted anonymously and identities of authors or reviewers are not released. Reviewers must maintain confidentiality of manuscripts. All correspondence with between editors and referees and editors and authors is confidential. If any confidential discussions have taken place between an author, editor and referee, they will remain in confidence unless explicit consent has been given by all concerned parties or if there are exceptional circumstances.

2.2.2 European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)® is committed to rapid editorial process. Reviewers are sent invite email through our Journal Management System ‘epress’ of University of Surrey ( Reviewers are asked to respond within 15 days after they receive first invite to review a manuscript. Reviewers should be aware that such messages contain confidential information and should be treated as such. If the reviewers are unable to review due to time constraints or if a reviewer feels they are not qualified to evaluate a particular manuscript, they decline the invite request so the editors can seek an alternative. A first reminder for submitting report is sent after lapse of 15 days and one last reminder is sent after another 15 days.

2.2.3 Reviewers are provided with Crossref Similarity Check Services (iThenticate) to assist them in conducting plagiarism checks on the manuscripts.

2.2.4 Peer-reviewers are asked to submit their reports via our secure and user-friendly online system on ‘epress'( by following the link provided in the editor’s invite email.

2.2.5 Reviewers evaluate a manuscript and then submit their report online on an ‘epress’ link provided to them in the invite email. Their recommendations are one of the following:

• Accept (manuscript is accepted without any changes)
• Minor Revisions (manuscript can be accepted after the author makes some minor revisions)
• Revise and Resubmit (manuscript needs to be revised and resubmitted making major changes)
• Reject (manuscripts is rejected and reasons are provided to author for any likely resubmission)

2.2.6 Reviews should do objective evaluations of the research. The main purpose of the review is to provide the editors with the information needed to reach a decision but the review should also instruct the authors on how they can strengthen their paper to the point where it may be acceptable. Reviewers must be constructive and courteous. A negative review should explain to the authors the major weaknesses of their manuscript so that the authors can improve their manuscripts and decide to resubmit later. Reviewers are thus welcome to give a recommendation but their comments which include the information on which the decision should be based are most useful for editors to evaluate and take a final decision on the manuscript. Providing arguments for and against publication for a manuscript is more helpful to the editors than a direct recommendation.

In their online report in ‘epress’ reviewers are asked to submit
(i) comments for author(s)
(ii) comments for editor(s)
Reviewers are encouraged to have same tone for both sets of comments.

The sections of the report include the following:
(i) Please provide some constructively expressed feedback for the author,
designed to help them revise or rewrite the article for this journal or another.
(ii) Has the author sufficiently taken advantage of the opportunities available through electronic
publication (e.g. access to program code or data; colour illustrations; animations)?
If not, have you any suggestions that could be forwarded to the author

2.3 Criteria for publication

To be published in European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)®, we encourage reviewers to evaluate a paper such that it meets the following general criteria:
a. The work described is novel
b. Authors have provided strong evidence for its conclusions.
c. The work is of significant important for the relevant field and also interesting for other related fields.
Referees are expected to identify flaws and also suggest improvements.

2.4 Editorial decision

2.4.1 European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)® editors generally take a decision by following a majority recommendation by reviewers. They also evaluate the arguments raised by reviewers and authors to arrive to a decision. Sometimes additional reviewers are contacted to resolve any disparity. At many occasions revised manuscripts may be sent back to reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief’s decision is final.

2.4.2 A final decision to accept or reject a manuscript is sent to the author along with recommendations made by the reviewers, and may include verbatim comments by the reviewers. A copy of this final decision is generally sent to all peer reviewers of the article. We do not edit the report when sending to author and we generally send all referee comments intended to the author. However, we reserve the right to edit the report if deemed necessary because of language concerns. We do not publish peer review reports for articles published in our journals. After a manuscript is revised and resubmitted to the journal, editors may send the revised submission for review again to same reviewers to maintain consistency of the review process.

2.5 Editorial Advisory Board

The Editorial Advisory Board of European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)® is suitable for well networked academics of standing in various fields of social sciences whose judgements are highly regarded within their discipline, have good track record of publication and have sound academic aptitude. The members of Editorial Advisory Board of have the following responsibilities:
• To support editors in the review process by providing suggestions and/or opinions on submitted papers.
• To provide guidance and advise to editors from time to time on journal policy, scope and content.
• To contribute in promotion and development of the journal inter alia, by endorsing it to academics and institutions
• To participate in the meetings of the board
• To recommend suitable measures for improvement of the journal

This membership is a voluntary position with no remuneration attached to the role.

3. Copyright and License

3.1 Copyright on any open access article in a European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)® is retained by the author(s) without restrictions.

3.2 Authors grant European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)® a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.

3.3 Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified. All users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of all articles published in the journal.

3.4 The Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 formalizes these and other terms and conditions of publishing articles.

3.5 European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)® also operates under the Creative Commons Licence CC-BY-NC-ND. This allows for the reproduction of articles, free of charge, for non-commercial use only and with the appropriate citation information. All authors publishing with the European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)® accept these as the terms of publication. The copyright of the content of all articles remains with the designated author of the article.

Full attribution must accompany any re-use and publisher source must be acknowledged. This should include the following information about the original work:

Article Title
Page numbers
Date of publication
European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS) as the original publisher

3.6 Self archiving (by authors)

We permit authors to archive their contributions on non-commercial websites. This can be either authors’ own personal websites, their institution’s repository, funding body’s repository, online open access repository, Pre-Print server, PubMed Central, ArXiv or any non-commercial website. Author does not require to pay any fee to us for self archiving.

3.6.1 Submitted version

The submitted version of a manuscript is defined as the un-refereed author version, including content and layout, of an article that the authors submits to the journal for formal peer review. Open access is allowed for submitted version. The embargo length is set to zero. On acceptance, the following statement should be added if possible: “This article has been accepted for publication in the journal and is available at [Link to final article using the DOI].”

3.6.2 Accepted version

The accepted manuscript is defined as the final draft of the manuscript, as accepted for publication by the journal, including all modifications based on referees’ suggestions, before it has undergone copyediting and proof correction. Open access is allowed for accepted version. The embargo length is set to zero.

When uploading an accepted manuscript to a repository, authors should include the following acknowledgment: “This is the peer reviewed, pre-copyedited version of the following article: [FULL CITE], which has been published in final form at [Link to final article using the DOI].”

3.6.3 Published version

Open access is allowed for published version. A published article in our journals can be made publicly available by the author upon publication immediately. The embargo length is set to zero. The journal must be attributed as the original publisher and [Link to final article using the DOI] must be added.

4. Open Access

European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS) is committed to real and immediate open access for academic work. All the original articles published in this journal are free to access immediately and permanently from the date of publication. We don’t charge any fees for any reader to download articles at any time for their own scholarly use.

European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS) also operates under the Creative Commons Licence CC-BY-NC-ND. This allows all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, free of charge, for non-commercial use only and subject to proper attribution of authorship. All authors publishing with the European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS) accept these as the terms of publication. The copyright of the content of all articles remains with the designated author of the article.

A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials in an appropriate standard electronic format is deposited in online repository which is supported and maintained by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, inter operability, and long-term archiving.

5. Archiving policy

We are committed to permanent availability, accessibility and preservation of scholarly research.

Digital Archiving

As a member of Portico (a community-supported digital archive), we archive our digital publications with them. We submit our digital publications to British Library (National Library of United Kingdom).

Archiving of print copies

Print copies are cataloged and archived in the following legal deposit libraries.
• British Library    Permalink
• National Library of Wales     Permalink
• National Library of Scotland    Permalink
• Oxford University Library    Permalink
• Trinity College Library Dublin    Permalink
• National and University Library, Zagreb Croatia    Permalink

6. Publication ethics

6.1 Conflicting interests

All authors, referees and editors must declare any conflicting interests related to the submitted manuscript. Referees are asked to declare their competing interests when they are returning their report on a manuscript. If an editor has a conflicting interest which could prevent them from making an unbiased decision on a manuscript then the editorial office will send the manuscript to an alternative editor for assessment.

Competing interests include the following:

For authors:

a. Employment – recent, current and anticipated by any organisation that may gain or lose financially through publication
b. Sources of funding – research support by any organisation that may gain or lose financially through publication
c. Personal financial interests – stocks and shares in companies that may gain or lose financially through publication
d. Any forms of remuneration from organisations that may gain or lose financially
e. Patents or patent applications which may be affected by publication
f. Membership of relevant organisations

For editors or referees:

a. Having a personal relationship with any of the authors or an editor
b. Working or having recently worked in the same department or institution as any of the authors.
c. Having recently been a supervisor or close collaborator or joint grant holder with any of the authors.

6.2 Funding

Funding received for the research work described in the paper must be declared within the publication under the Acknowledgements section. This should include research funds (source and/or grant number), funding of the article processing charge and/or funding for writing or editing assistance.

6.3 Plagiarism, copyright and intellectual property

6.3.1 Author conduct and copyright

All authors are required to agree to our licence requirements when submitting their work. By submitting to the European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)® and agreeing to this licence, the submitting author agrees on behalf of all authors that:
a. the work is original, has not previously been published and is not currently under consideration for publication elsewhere; and
b. the author has obtained permission to use any material which has been sourced from third parties (e.g. illustrations or charts), and the terms have been granted.
All articles are published under the creative commons license, which allows reuse and redistribution with attribution to the authors.

6.3.2 Referee conduct and intellectual property

Authors are entitled to expect that referees or other individuals including editors privy to the work an author submits to a journal will not steal their research ideas or plagiarise their work. European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)® requires all referees to treat submitted material in confidence until it has been published. Any allegations of plagiarism or theft must be substantiated and will be treated seriously.

6.3.3 Misconduct Research misconduct

Research misconduct includes falsification, fabrication or plagiarism in proposing, performing, reviewing and/or reporting research results. Research misconduct does not include minor honest errors or differences of opinion. We use Crossref Similarity Check for plagiarism checks.

If after assessment of the research work, the editor has concerns about a publication; a response will be sought from the authors. If the response is unsatisfactory, the editors will contact the author’s head of department or institute and can also choose to contact the author’s funding agency. In cases of published plagiarism or dual publication, an announcement will be made on the journal explaining the situation, including ‘retractions’ if work is proven to be fraudulent. Redundant publication

European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)® only considers article submissions which have not been published previously. Redundant publication, duplicate publication and text recycling is not acceptable and the authors must ensure that their research work is only published once.

Minor overlap of content may be unavoidable and must be reported transparently in the manuscript. In review articles, if text is recycled from an earlier publication, it must be presented with a novel development of previously published opinions and appropriate references to previous publications must be cited.

6.4 Editorial standards and processes

6.4.1 Editorial independence

Editorial independence is respected. The Editor-in-chief’s decision is final.

6.4.2 Peer review systems

European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)® ensures that the peer review process is fair and we aim to minimise bias.

Papers submitted are normally peer reviewed in a double-blind fashion (both author and referee names are concealed). If any confidential discussions have taken place between an author, editor and referee, they will remain in confidence unless explicit consent has been given by all concerned parties or if there are exceptional circumstances.

Editors or board members are never involved in editorial decisions about their own work and in these cases papers may be referred to other editors or the editor-in-chief. We do not accept any kind of abusive behaviour or correspondence towards our staff or editors. Any author of a paper submitted to European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)® who engages in abusive behaviour or correspondence towards staff or editors will have their paper immediately withdrawn from consideration for publication by the journal concerned. Consideration of subsequent submissions will be at the discretion of the Editor-in-chief.

6.4.3 Appeals

Authors have a right to appeal editorial decisions taken by European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)®. The author should submit the grounds for their appeal to the editorial office through email. Authors are discouraged from directly contacting any editorial board members or editors with their appeals. Following an appeal, all editorial decisions are conclusive and final decision rests with the Editor-in-chief.

Editors will mediate all communication exchanges between authors and referees during the entire peer review process (i.e. prior to publication of the manuscript). If agreement cannot be reached then the editors may consider inviting comments from additional referee(s) if needed.

6.4.4 Standards of accuracy

European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)® shall have the duty to publish corrections or other notifications. A ‘correction’ shall be normally used when a small part of an otherwise reliable publication proves to be misleading to the readers. A ‘retraction’ (notification of invalid results) will be issued if work is proven to be fraudulent or as a result of a significant error.

6.5 Preprints

We are committed to increasing the accessibility of research and ensuring that it is communicated as rapidly as possible. To accelerate this process, we encourage researchers to deposit early versions of articles they intend to submit to a peer-reviewed journal in appropriate preprint repositories such as arXiv.

Preprints may be deposited at any time and made freely available. Posting a preprint on a recognised preprint server or repository does not constitute as a prior publication and will prejudice neither the peer review process nor publication in our journals.

Please note that once a manuscript has been revised and accepted to the journal it is no longer classed as a preprint, and the authors will grant license to publish.

When posting a preprint on a preprint server or a repository, we recommend that you:

a. make clear the status of the work, e.g. that it has not been formally peer reviewed or accepted by a journal (or other recognised venue);
b. take responsibility to safeguard sensitive information, such as identities of the participants (wherever applicable) or the location of endangered species (wherever applicable), and adhere to appropriate standards of reporting and ethical oversight.
c. add a link to the final publisher version, once the article is accepted and formally published.

6.6 Data sharing

6.6.1 Open data policy

To allow others researchers to verify and further build upon the work published in European Journal of Social Sciences (EJSS)®, the authors must make available the data, code and/or research materials which are integral to the results in the article. All Datasets, files and code should be deposited in appropriate, recognised publicly available repositories. Authors should disclose during submission of the manuscript itself if there are any restrictions on the availability of data, code and research materials from their work.

Datasets, files and codes that have been deposited in an external repository should be appropriately cited in both the reference list and methods section.

6.6.2 Supplementary material

The supplementary material feature can also be used to upload supporting figures, videos and other small files that do not contain raw data. All supplementary material will be made available on our journal websites under a Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 licence, meaning that others are free to share, reuse and build upon the information, as long as they properly credit the original author.

6.6.3 Source code

Source code should be made available under an open source licence and deposited in an appropriate repository. Small amounts of source code can be included in the supplementary material.

6.7 Research ethics and animal treatment (wherever applicable)

Articles will be accepted only if they are considered ethically sound in the judgement of the editor(s). The studies should have obtained prior approval from relevant ethics committee and regulatory bodies in line with the Declaration of Helsinki. The authors should confirm that they have obtained informed consent from all the participants.

Authors should include details of animal welfare and relevant details of steps taken to ameliorate suffering in the Methods section of the paper. We encourage all authors to comply with the ‘Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments’ (ARRIVE) guidelines. Articles describing work with animals will be accepted only if the procedures/experiments used are clearly described and conform to institutional guidelines and the legal requirements of the country in which the work was carried out. A brief statement identifying the institutional and/or licensing committee approving the experiments must be included at the end of the article.

Referees are invited to express any ethical concerns regarding animal experimentation, human studies, conservation issues or potential risk of misuse or maltreatment of animals.

7. Pricing Policy

7.1. Article Processing Charge (APC)

Article submission charge is nil. Article processing charge or article publishing charge (APC) is payable once manuscript has been accepted for publication. This provides immediate, permanent and worldwide access to the full article text after publication. The APC covers
a. Editorial process: peer review and editorial support.
b. Technical infrastructure: development, maintenance and operation of journal website.
c. Production of articles: formatting, color charges, page charges.
d. Marketing of the journal
e. Customer Services: responding to authors and readers

APC is progressive in nature based on income-based country classification. Low-income countries are charged less.

The APC is the following:
High-income countries*                     £ 1000 plus applicable VAT
Upper-middle-income countries*    £ 700 plus applicable VAT
Lower-middle-income countries*    £ 400 plus applicable VAT
Low income economies countries*  £ 200 plus applicable VAT

*Article processing charge or article publishing charge (APC) is nil up till Dec 31, 2018

*Country of primary affiliation of the corresponding author shall be used to decide the applicable APC.

*Based on Income-based country classification by The World Bank

High-income countries: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, The, Bahrain, Barbados, Belgium, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Cayman Islands, Channel Islands, Chile, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, French Polynesia, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Guam, Hong Kong SAR, China, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Isle of Man, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Rep., Kuwait, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macao SAR, China, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Northern Mariana Islands, Norway, Oman, Palau, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Singapore, Sint Maarten (Dutch part), Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Martin (French part), Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan (China), Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Virgin Islands (U.S.)

Upper-middle-income countries: Albania, Algeria, American Samoa, Argentina, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Ecuador, Fiji, Gabon, Grenada, Guyana, Iran, Islamic Rep., Iraq, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Libya, Macedonia, FYR, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Montenegro, Namibia, Nauru, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Romania, Russian Federation, Samoa, Serbia, South Africa, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Thailand, Tonga, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Venezuela, RB

Lower-middle-income countries: Angola, Armenia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Bolivia, Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Cameroon, Congo, Rep., Côte d’Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Arab Rep., El Salvador, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kosovo, Kyrgyz Republic, Lao PDR, Lesotho, Mauritania. Micronesia, Fed. Sts., Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, São Tomé and Principe, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, Tunisia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, West Bank and Gaza, Yemen, Rep., Zambia

Low income economies countries: Afghanistan, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Dem. Rep, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, The, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Korea, Dem. People’s Rep., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zimbabwe

7.1.1 Full waiver

If an author cannot afford the APC, then individual waiver requests are considered on a case-by-case basis and may be granted in cases of genuine need.

7.1.2 Payment methods

The following methods of payment are accepted:

a. By bank transfer GBP (£) to account number: ‘89642996’ Sort code: ’60-17-27′ BIC: ‘NWBKGB2L’ IBAN: ‘GB38 NWBK 6017 2789 6429 96’. Please quote our invoice number and subscriber number when making payment and send information to

b. By Debit or Credit card

7.1.3 Refunds

No refund or credit of APC will be offered in the following cases: article retraction, article removal or circumstances beyond our control

7.2 Subscription Charges

Print 1-year subscription Individual Issue
Corporate £ 150 £ 60
-High income countries £ 100 £ 45
-Upper-middle-income countries £ 70 £ 35
-Lower-middle-income countries £ 40 £ 25
-Low-income countries £ 30 £ 15
-Personal £ 50 £ 15

7.2.1 Terms and conditions

a. All subscriptions are entered on a calendar year basis running from January to December.
b. Full advance payment is required for all orders.
c. Subscription payments are non-refundable after the first issue has been dispatched.
d. An Institutional or Corporate subscription may be used by multiple individuals within an organization.
e. A Personal subscription may only be used by the individual subscriber for personal use. By purchasing subscriptions at the personal rate you agree that the journal will be used only for personal, non-commercial purposes. Resale of journals purchased at the personal rate is strictly prohibited.

7.2.2 Taxes

All prices shown above are exclusive of any taxes. All customers will pay VAT at the applicable UK rate.

7.2.3 Delivery

All prices shown include standard delivery. Please allow up to 10 working days for delivery within UK and Europe and 21 days for rest of the world.

Last updated: Sep 2018